Little more than one hundred years have gone by since the birth of Ettore Majorana, a highly renowed theoretical physicist. His career was brief and irregular but very intense, and he disappeared in March 1938 in circumstances that still are not completely clear. This volume is a contribution to a better understanding of the scientific, academic and human personality of Ettore Majorana, beyond the layers of legendary aspects which have accumulated over the years. Based on primary sources alone-scientific literature of the period and numerous archival documents-the figure of Ettore Majorana emerges in a completely new light. The young scientist is intensely involved in scientific research, completely independent, always striving to offer innovative contributions of the highest level according to the most advanced international standards, and very determined to make his results known by following a shrewd publication strategy. He is profoundly interested in his academic career, very scrupulous with institutional relationships, and attentive to his students. Moreover, his documented scholarly activity is much wider than previously reported. This historical analysis shows also that Majorana had a very important role in orienting research in Rome, especially in the sector of 7the statistical model of the atom and in Nuclear Physics. It is also clear that there are aspects of E8ttore Majorana’s life which transmit a solid historical legacy from the cultural and human points of view, besides the scientific legacy which is universally recognized to him. A rich reproduction of original documents completes the volume.